Carbon dating laboratories

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Any of these workers who have chronic medical conditions or receive immunosuppressive therapy would be at increased risk for a laboratory-acquired infection (LAI) after a laboratory exposure.Precise risk for infection after exposure is unknown because determining the source or the mode of transmission often is difficult. LAIs and exposures have been reported since early in the 20th century, but only in the 1970s were sufficient data available to attempt quantitative assessments of risk.This document was written not to replace existing biosafety guidelines, but to 1) improve the safety of activities in clinical diagnostic laboratories, 2) encourage laboratory workers to think about safety issues they might not previously have considered or addressed, and 3) encourage laboratorians to create and foster a culture of safety in their laboratories.Should any of the guidelines provided herein conflict with federal, state, or local laws or regulatory requirements, the laboratorian should defer to the federal, state, or local requirements.All functions of the human and animal diagnostic laboratory — microbiology, chemistry, hematology, and pathology with autopsy and necropsy guidance — are addressed.A specific section for veterinary diagnostic laboratories addresses the veterinary issues not shared by other human laboratory departments.In a 1986 survey of approximately 4000 workers in 54 public health and 165 hospital laboratories in the United States, 3.5/1000 employee infections occurred in hospital laboratories, and 1.4/1000 employee infections occurred in public health laboratories (15). laboratorians, Neisseria meningitidis accounted for a substantial number of LAIs.

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The attack rate for microbiologists (aged 30–59 years) was 20/100,000 (17).Recent MMWR reports (3–11) have indicated that bacteria account for 37 species reported as etiologic agents in LAIs; however, other microbes are often implicated.Hepatitis B has been the most frequent laboratory-acquired viral infection, with a rate of 3.5–4.6 cases per 1000 workers, which is two to four times that of the general population.Reported parasite-associated LAIs were caused primarily by Leishmania, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Chagas disease organism, and other trypanosomes (20).Of the 52 cases of laboratory-acquired malaria, 56% were vector borne (from mosquitoes used in research, not clinical laboratories).

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